Exploring the contribution of social dialogue and collective bargaining in the promotion of decent and productive telework in the post-COVID-19 scenario

about twing

TWING aims to explore the impact of COVID-19 crisis on telework, working conditions and industrial relations with the overarching objective of supporting social partners in the promotion of decent and productive telework in the post-COVID-19 scenario.

For this purpose, the analysis will focus on four sectors which face different constrains in relation to telework and six countries that differ on the prevalence and ways of regulating telework, and are representative of different industrial relations regimes. This sectoral and country selection will enable comparative analysis and policy recommendations at the European level.


ICT Consultancy

financial activities

Financial Activities

chemical industry

Chemical Industry

public admnistration

Public Administration

In terms of countries, TWING will cover:

Data: European Labour Force Survey, 2021

· Countries that greatly differ on the incidence of telework.

· Countries which represent different models of industrial relations according to most recent typologies, each with a clear geographic concentration: “organised corporatism” characteristic of Nordic countries (Finland), “Social partnership” in central-western Europe (Austria), a “State-cantered” cluster in Southern Europe (Spain and Portugal), and a “market-oriented governance” model in central-eastern Europe (Estonia and Poland). Although such a schematic taxonomy carries problems of simplification and may have been subjected to recent changes, it somewhat helps guaranteeing a spread of countries in terms of industrial relations tradition.

· Selected countries also greatly differ on how they have regulated telework, particularly in terms of collective bargaining and social dialogue. legislation is the prevalent form of regulation in Spain, Estonia, Portugal and Poland. In Austria, n, legal regulations for telework came into effect on 1 April 2021. This legislation is very broad. Accordingly, key aspects of the telework regulation are still left to social partner. In the case of Finland, there is no specific legislation addressing telework, this is accomplished in different laws regarding health and safety or working conditions, and therefore collective bargaining plays a major role.

Twing objectives
Finland stands out as the EU country with a highest share of employees working from home on a regular basis (38.2%)
Austria is above the EU average (25.3%)
Portugal is above the EU average (25.1%)
Estonia is close to the average (23.7%)
Spain is below the average (12.3%)
Poland is below the average (11.3%)

Latest news

Lisbon meeting of the project TWING – First Scientific Meeting

Category: Events, News


30 May, 2023

Lisbon meeting of the project TWING – First Scientific Meeting

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Kick-off meeting

Category: Events, News


22 December, 2022

Kick-off meeting

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